In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group
of educational psychologists who developed a classification of
levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. This became
a taxonomy including three overlapping domains; the cognitive,
psychomotor, and affective. Each of the domains can be utilized
through the interaction of media.
is demonstrated by knowledge
recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information,
organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge,
choosing among alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating
ideas or actions. This domain on the acquisition and use of knowledge
is predominant in the majority of courses. Bloom identified six
levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or
recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly
more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order
which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent
intellectual activity on each level are listed here.
arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order,
recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
- Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express,
identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review,
- Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ,
illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve,
analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast,
criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine,
experiment, question, test.
arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design,
develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose,
set up, write.
appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate,
judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.
is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness,
interest, attention, concern, and responsibility, ability to
listen and respond in interactions with others, and ability to
demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which
are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study.
This domain relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and
values, such as enjoying, conserving, respecting, and supporting.
Verbs applicable to the affective domain include accepts, attempts,
challenges, defends, disputes, joins, judges, praises, questions,
shares, supports, and volunteers.
Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills; coordination,
dexterity, manipulation, grace, strength, speed; actions which
demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments
or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as
the use of the body in dance or athletic performance. Verbs applicable
to the psychomotor domain include bend, grasp, handle, operate,
reach, relax, shorten, stretch, write, differentiate (by touch),
express (facially), perform (skillfully).
from "The Distance
Learning Technology Resource Guide," by Carla Lane